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Design requirements and standards for cow enclosures


Now large-scale dairy farms use free sleepers, intelligent management facilities, TMR, milking parlors and other processes to raise dairy cows. Therefore, it is very common to install free sleepers when constructing dairy farms. According to the survey, the application of free stalls to dairy cows can not only improve the utilization rate of dairy cows, reduce the land occupied by the farm builder, but also facilitate management and cleaning of the cowshed, improve the efficiency of cattle raising, and reduce the incidence of mastitis in dairy cows. However, if you want to achieve these good feeding effects, you need to make a reasonable installation design for the free bed.
1. Design requirements of free sleeper
The cow free-riding pen is composed of two parts: a partition and a cow bed. There are two main types of partitions in structure: cantilever type and support type. The cantilever type is directly fixed on the front column or the front wall, which is convenient for construction and convenient for the finishing of cow mattress materials. The support type requires front support and rear support. Concrete pouring support legs are required during construction. During the use process, the support legs of the sleeper are easily corroded, and colleagues are not conducive to moving and repeated use. In the current domestic and foreign cattle farms, metal cantilever type is more popular. In actual dairy farms, the design requirements for free stalls are as follows:
1. Good comfort. While meeting the requirements of production management, the environment of the grass should be imitated as much as possible. The surface should be soft, clean and flat, and the width should be appropriate. There should be sufficient space for the front to rush forward. There is no restriction, and the head can be bent to the side of the body to rest. The legs, breasts, and tail can all be on the cow bed. Excretion and urination should be discharged to the manure removal channel outside the cow bed, so as not to pollute or less pollute the cow bed.
2. The height is moderate, which is convenient for cleaning manure. The height of the rear edge (retaining wall) of the cow bed should not be too high, otherwise it will easily cause the cows to be afraid, but if it is too low, it will easily be polluted by the manure removal. The height of the rear edge generally depends on the method of manure removal. The height of 20cm can be selected for the manure method; the height of 25-30cm should be raised to the height of 25-30cm if the manure is cleaned by water; -30cm.
2. Design standards of free sleeper
1. Install the cow free sleeper as shown in the picture above, and then lay the bedding material under the free bedding material. The bedding material can be selected from engineering sand, clean hay, dry biogas residue, etc. 15-20cm), rubber sponge pad can also be used. The litter is required to be soft, dry, highly absorbent, free from breeding conditions for mastitis pathogens, not to cause joint wear, low cost, and easy to maintain.
2. A manure channel is dug on the ground below the tail of the free-slung cow body. The channel mouth is facing the buttocks of the cow. Cattle farms are cleaned daily.
After the free stall is designed and used, attention should also be paid to its management. Here we need to remind everyone: pay attention to cleaning the feces at the back of the stall every day, as well as the soaked or contaminated litter, and repair the damaged ones in time. Barriers to observe the behavior of the cows so that the equipment can be adjusted in time. It is recommended to level the bedding once a day, replenish the bedding 1-2 times a week, and arrange the bed slope once a month.

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