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Application of fly maggots in chicken breeding


With the improvement of people's living standards and the continuous development of animal husbandry, the demand for protein feed is increasing. In recent years, the emergence of mad cow disease has banned the use of animal feeds such as meat and bone meal in many countries, and the world’s fishing catch has been declining year by year, resulting in a decline in fishmeal production. The lack of protein resources has affected the development of the livestock and poultry industry. Traditional domestic production of laying hens mostly uses fish meal-type diets. But fish meal is expensive, which severely restricts the sustainable development of China's modern chicken industry [1~2]. It is imperative to seek new and safe alternatives to high-protein feed. Therefore, all countries in the world regard solving the problem of insufficient protein as the main direction of development of feed resources. The larvae of fly larvae have the advantages of fast growth, high output, and convenient for artificial cultivation. At the same time, the cultivation of fly larvae usually uses wastes such as household garbage and animal manure, which can reduce environmental pollution. In addition, it also contains active substances such as lectin, lysozyme, antibacterial peptides, antibacterial proteins and chitin, making it an excellent protein feed. When used as feed for poultry and livestock, it can be used in three ways: fresh maggots for feeding, drying into dry maggots or processing into dry maggot powder.

1 The nutritional value of fly maggots
Fly larvae are rich in nutrients. Many experts at home and abroad have done relevant research. The crude protein content of fly larvae powder is 58. 80% ~ 63. Between 89% [3 ~ 5], the protein content is close to imported fish meal, and the essential amino acid content is that of fish meal. 3 times. The amino acids rich in fly maggot protein are mostly restrictive amino acids for livestock and poultry. The total amount of essential amino acids/total amount of non-essential amino acids (E/N) are 0 respectively. 79. 0. 73, all exceed the reference value proposed by FAO/WHO. 6 [6]. In the amino acid composition of fly maggot protein, except arginine, the content of other amino acids is higher or close to that of ordinary beans, including arginine, lysine, tyrosine, methionine, valine, and phenylalanine The acid content is also higher than the amino acid content of Peru's imported fish meal and other domestic fish meal [7-8]. The crude fat content of fresh maggots is relatively low, only 5. 4%, compared with meat, only higher than chicken and carp, and fly larva meal is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, up to 68.5%. 2%, essential fatty acids are as high as 36%. The total sugar content of fresh maggots is only 0.1%. 9%, except that it is significantly lower than soybeans, the sugar content is equivalent to other foods, which is a low-sugar resource. Fly maggot powder also contains a variety of inorganic salts and vitamins, and the content is rich, the content of vitamin A, D and E are 727. 8 and 131μg /100 g and 10. 04 mg/100g, the content of Fe, Zn and Se are respectively 268, 159 and 8. 9mg/kg [9]. Dry fly maggot powder also contains fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins. The content of water-soluble vitamins in the B group is very rich, especially VitB2 and VitB12. It also contains various trace elements such as copper, manganese, cobalt, and iodine. The requirements of various livestock and poultry. In addition, it also contains ingredients such as chitin, lectin and antimicrobial peptides that can improve chicken disease resistance. It shows that fly larvae are a kind of animal feed with high protein, low fat and rich nutrition. It can replace fish meal as a protein source in chicken farming, which has a very broad prospect.
2 The effect of fly maggots on broilers
2.1 Feeding broilers with fly maggots can increase the daily gain of broilers
Larger daily gain and higher meat quality are the requirements for broilers for production. Fly larva meal has become an ideal protein feed material with its high nutrition and high efficiency, which can fully meet the requirements of modern broiler production. Jia Shengfu et al. [10] used AA broiler chickens to experiment with the same ratio (5%) of fly maggot meal and fish meal to feed broiler chickens aged 22 to 50 days. The fly maggot meal group was better than the fish meal group. The daily gaining effect is obvious, and the feed consumption is reduced. Ren Jinglei [11] selected 315 8-day-old bantam yellow roosters with similar weight in the experiment, and randomly divided them into a control group, a 4% fishmeal group and 4. 44% fly maggot powder group, 3 replicates in each group. The growth performance indicators of each group of test chickens were measured at the chicken (8-21 days old), medium chicken (22-42 days old) and large chicken stages (43-63 days old), and carried out at the end of the 63-day-old feeding experiment Slaughter determination. The results showed that the average daily gain and feed intake of the experimental chickens in the fly maggot meal group were significantly higher than those in the control and fish meal groups, and the feed-to-meat ratio and mortality were not significantly different from the other two groups. In the middle chicken stage and the big chicken stage, the growth performance indexes of the fly maggot meal group were not significantly different from those of the other two groups. Inaoka [12] compared the effect of adding 7% fly maggot meal or 7% fish meal to the diet to feed broilers aged 1 to 24 days. The results of the experiment found that the feed-to-meat ratio and average daily gain of the two groups were different None are significant. The results of Hwangbo et al. [13] showed that adding 10% and 15% fly maggots to the diet can significantly improve the slaughter performance of Ross commercial roosters. According to the above, the results of weight gain and slaughter rate are different in different experiments, which may be It is related to the type of test chicken and the addition ratio of fly maggots. But the general trend is that adding fly maggots or fly maggot products to feed will increase the weight gain of chickens.
2.2 Feeding broilers with fly maggots can improve the muscle flavor of broilers
Li Guanghong et al. [14] raised Qingyuan hemp chicken with 10% fly maggot active protein additive. Whether it is indoor cage, outdoor captive or mountain free-range breeding, its daily gain is significantly higher than that of Qingyuan chicken raised with ordinary chicken feed. The meat ratio is significantly lower than that of chickens raised on ordinary feed. Whether it is indoor cage or mountain free range, Qingyuan chickens fed with fly maggot active protein have higher protein content and lower fat than those fed with ordinary feed. The ratio of essential amino acids to total amino acids (EAA / TAA), the ratio of flavored amino acids to total amino acids (DAA/TAA) and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) to total fat are higher than those fed with ordinary feed. Hao Yuanli et al. [15] The effect of adding dried fly maggots in the diet on the meat production performance of green-footed chickens. The slaughter performance results showed that compared with the control group, the addition of 3% fly larvae in the diet did not improve the performance of green-footed chickens. Slaughter performance. Compared with the control group, the content of umami amino acids in the breast and leg muscles of Qingjiao Mochi in the test group increased respectively. 9% and 3. 5%, the content of inosinic acid in the breast muscle was significantly increased. 1% (p <0.05); 4 unique volatile flavor substances, dipentene, 1-methoxy-2-acetone, 3-nonanone and isobutyl lactate, were detected in the green-foot mochi chicken in the test group , And the content of aldehydes and 1-octene-3-alcohol was significantly higher than the control group. Chang Bin et al. [16] studied the effect of housefly as a feed additive on the quality and flavor of Qingyuan fine varieties of chicken. The results showed that the contents of 8 essential amino acids in the experimental group added with fly maggots were higher than those in the basic feed control group and fish meal control group. Aspartic acid, threonine, serine, phenylalanine, histidine and other amino acids related to sour, sweet, bitter, salty, fresh and flavor substances are also significantly higher than the basic feed control group, which shows that fly maggots act as Adding feed has a significant effect on improving the quality and flavor of Qingyuan chicken. From this we can know that adding fly maggots in the process of raising chickens can not only increase the weight of broilers, but also increase the flavor substances in the chicken, increase the umami taste of the chicken, and improve the quality of the chicken. Shows that fly maggots have important economic value in raising broilers.
3 The effect of fly maggots on laying hens
3.1 Fly maggots can increase the laying rate of laying hens
Eggs contain a lot of protein, and laying hens need a lot of protein consumption. Increasing the level of protein feed in the diet can effectively increase the egg production rate. Jin Qunying [17] fed local chickens with fly maggots, and the results proved that feeding with fly maggots can improve the production performance of local chickens. The results of Wu Jianwei et al. [18] showed that a comparative study of replacing fish meal with maggot protein in conventional diets increased egg production on average in equal and half-dose replacement groups. 22kg and 0. 64kg, the egg production rate was higher than the control group. 89% and 21. 42%, the feed conversion rate is higher than that of the control group. Fresh maggot feeding is better than fly maggot feeding, and the same production effect can be obtained when the amount of domestic fish meal used in the layer diet formula is lower. Wang Xiaojuan [19] Adding fly maggots to layer feed can significantly increase the rate of fish eggs and average egg weight, and can partially improve egg quality; adding fly maggots during the laying period can significantly increase the weight of layers and reduce the rate of dead stocks. Hao Guizeng [20] used Xingza 288 laying hens to carry out a three-month feeding experiment (Experiment II). According to different protein feeds, they were divided into experimental group (fly maggot meal type diet) and control group (fish meal type diet). ). The results showed that in Experiment I (experiment I was not found in the text), compared with the control group, the experimental group reduced the raw material cost by about 60 yuan per ton of food, and the survival rate increased 3. 2% (P <0.05), and the uniformity increased by 8% (P <0.05); in test II, the number of eggs laid during the test period was increased. 2% (P<0.05), the egg weight increased9. 616% (P <0.05). It can be seen that feeding laying hens with fly larvae can increase the laying rate and egg weight of chickens, and improve the performance of chickens; therefore, feeding laying hens with fly larvae meal instead of fish meal is a rational use of feed resources, lower production costs, and increase An effective way of economic benefits.
3.2 Fly maggots can improve egg quality
According to the inspection by the authoritative department, every 100g of eggs produced by supplementary feeding of fly maggots in laying hens contains 31lmg of cholesterol, which is about one-half of common eggs, which is beneficial to human health. Moreover, its price is more than one time higher than that of ordinary eggs, and the breeding efficiency is higher than that of conventional breeding methods. Zhang Jianbin and Guo Minzeng [21] The addition of fly maggot dry powder to layer diets instead of fish meal can increase egg production rate and daily egg production, reduce egg yolk cholesterol content; increase egg yolk content and egg yolk/protein ratio, and reduce egg content Protein content. At the same time, it can reduce egg yolk cholesterol content; increase egg yolk content and egg yolk/protein ratio, and improve egg quality.
4 fly maggots increase the disease resistance of chickens
In the breeding industry, mortality is an important indicator. Improving disease resistance and reducing mortality have always been the most concerned issues of farmers. The study by Chang Bin et al. [16] showed that the mortality rate of flocks fed with fly maggots was significantly lower than that of flocks fed only with fish meal or basic diet. Qin Ronggui’s research has shown that fly maggot powder contains active substances such as chitin/chitosan that can improve immunity and immunity [22]. Chitin/chitosan can also be used as feed additives, which can improve chicken feed when used in chicken feed. Immunity [23]. Hao Guizeng [21] used the Xingza 288 layer test, and the results showed that the number of T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes in the fishmeal diet group increased to varying degrees compared with the fly maggot meal diet group. Increase the production of layer hen immunoglobulin IgG 9. 5%, IgM increase 7. 1% . Shen Hong et al. [24] showed that the number of red blood cells (RBC) in Baili chickens fed with antimicrobial peptides was significantly increased compared with the control group (P <0.05), and the number of white blood cells (WBC) decreased significantly (P <0.05) , The content of total protein, albumin, and globulin in the blood are significantly increased. Zhang Ting [25] Adding housefly larvae products has a tendency to increase the immune organ index of broilers (P>0.05), which can reduce serum malondialdehyde concentration to varying degrees, and increase serum catalase and superoxide Dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and increase the total antioxidant capacity. Zhou Gang [26] and other studies have shown that fly maggot antimicrobial peptides have a therapeutic effect on pullorum disease chickens caused by Salmonella infection. It can be seen from the above that fly larvae contain antibacterial peptides, chitin, chitosan and other antibacterial substances. Feeding fly larvae in chickens can improve immunity, reduce mortality and reduce breeding risks.
5 Conclusion
Fly maggots are not only high in protein content, but also rich in minerals and vitamins. They also contain many antibacterial substances. At the same time, fly larvae have a short feeding cycle, strong disease resistance, strong reproductive power and low feeding cost. The fly larva feed has a wide range of sources and is sterile. Fly maggots can make full use of domestic waste and livestock and poultry manure, etc. It is simple, economical and environmentally friendly. Feeding broiler chickens with fly maggots can not only increase the daily gain of the chicken, but also increase the flavor substances in the chicken, improve the meat quality, and make the chicken more It is delicious; adding fly maggot products when raising laying hens can provide a lot of protein for laying hens, increase egg weight and egg production rate, reduce egg cholesterol content, increase egg yolk content and egg yolk/protein ratio, and improve egg quality; In addition, feeding chickens with fly larvae can increase their immunity, improve disease resistance, reduce mortality, reduce the risk of farmers, and increase their income. In pig raising and aquatic product breeding, the application of fly larvae has been relatively successful. It should be pointed out that when feeding poultry with fly larvae, especially chickens, the short esophagus and low digestibility of chickens should also be considered. Therefore, when fly larvae are used as a protein feed material instead of fish meal added to the chicken's forehead diet, the 4% to 7% that is actually confirmed is ideal.

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