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Causes and prevention of flatulence in pigs

2020-11-30

How can pigs get flatulence?

 
There are many reasons for gastrointestinal bloating, including microorganisms and improper feeding and management. In pig production, the cause of constipation must be addressed. Practice shows that improving feeding management and strengthening the prevention of infectious diseases can avoid gastrointestinal The occurrence of suffocation.
 
1. E. coli infection
 
Young pigs are easily infected with E. coli within 3 weeks after birth, and there is no seasonal restriction on their infection. Yellow scour often affects more than 90% of the piglets within a litter, some up to 100%, and the fatality rate is very high; the litter incidence rate can reach 30%-80% when pullorum occurs.
 
Pathogenic Escherichia coli has a variety of virulence factors, which cause diarrhea and dehydration in pigs. Due to the loss of digestive function of the intestine, nutrients are fermented in the intestine to produce gas, which causes the intestinal irritation.
 
Prevention and treatment: There is often no good treatment for piglet qi, so the mortality rate is extremely high. The use of sensitive antibiotics such as ceftiofur can inhibit or kill the pathogen, but it has no effect on qi, so prevention is more important. It is worth noting that overdose of atropine by many veterinarians can often cause iatrogenic suffocation.
 
2. Clostridium perfringens infection
 
Piglets between 12h and 7 days old are susceptible to infection, more commonly at 3 days old, with a litter infection rate of 9% to 100%, a case fatality rate of 5% to 59%, and an average mortality rate of 26%.
 
Most pigs develop bloody diarrhea, the skin on the abdomen becomes dark, the spirit is weak, and they are reluctant to walk. Severe bleeding in the small intestine, emphysema on the intestinal wall, and blood-like fluid in other intestines.
 
Prevention and treatment: Some drugs such as tylosin and tinidazole have an in vitro inhibitory effect on this bacteria, but the effect is extremely poor in practice, so the mortality rate is extremely high. This problem can only be reduced by improving the environment and management.
 
3. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection
 
Infectious gastroenteritis generally occurs in winter and spring, can be spread through contact with pigs, and is mostly endemic and periodic.
 
After the virus infects the epithelial cells of the small intestine, it quickly sheds it, making it difficult to decompose lactose and other necessary nutrients. Due to the effect of osmotic pressure, it causes water retention, and even absorbs body fluids from body tissues, resulting in diarrhea and dehydration. At the same time, nutrients are fermented in the intestinal tract, producing a large amount of gas, causing gastrointestinal qi. The autopsy cadaver was obviously dehydrated, the stomach was full of curds, the intestinal tube was dilated and translucent, and the mesentery was congested. Similar lesions can also be seen in epidemic diarrhea.
 
Prevention and treatment: There is no specific medicine in clinical cases that have developed qi. The use of supportive therapy for diarrhea cases and the control of secondary infection are very effective. On the one hand, to replenish body fluids and prevent acidosis, use oral rehydration salts for feeding. On the other hand, use sensitive antibiotics to prevent secondary infections, such as ceftiofur and paromycin. There are also reports that interferon is effective for this disease.
 
4. Infectious constipation
 
It is understood that certain infectious diseases, parasitic diseases and multi-pathogen mixed infections such as swine fever, PRRS, streptococcus, Haemophilus parasuis, chronic intestinal tuberculosis, intestinal helminthiasis, etc., can cause severe constipation. This leads to qi, and other symptoms and pathologies are often accompanied. Relieving constipation can relieve suffocation. In cases of so-called unnamed high fever, some pig farms perform laxatives and dissociation to relieve suffocation, thereby increasing the cure rate.
 
Prevention and treatment: We must formulate scientific immunization procedures and adopt comprehensive biosecurity measures to prevent the occurrence of such infectious diseases.
 
How to reduce the occurrence of flatulence in pigs
 
1. The pig house should be cleaned and stored properly, and the trough should be cleaned in time to prevent mildew;
 
2. The feed size is appropriate, and the pigs at each stage should choose the appropriate sieve mesh diameter. Nursery pigs are 1.0 mm, piglets are 1.2 mm, middle pigs are 1.5 mm, large pigs are 1.8-2.0 mm, and sows are 2.0-2.2 mm. If the sieve is not used in accordance with the regulations, it will cause indigestion. If the rules are exceeded, it will cause gastric ulcers
 
3. Pregnant and lactating sows should be strictly divided into time periods, meals, and quantitative feeding to prevent indigestion caused by overeating
 
4. Appropriately increase the ratio of crude fiber in the diet, feed a certain amount of green forage every day, or add an appropriate amount of microecological agents to the diet to reduce the occurrence of constipation
 
5. Do a good job in insulation and moisture-proof work of pig houses in winter and spring
 
6. If conditions permit, strengthen pig movement
 
7. Careful inspection, early detection and early treatment.


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