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Selection and installation of ventilation equipment for broiler houses


The ventilation of the chicken house is divided into two types: mechanical ventilation and natural ventilation. When designing the ventilation system, not only the stocking density of broilers and the local maximum temperature should be considered, but also attention should be paid to uniform ventilation. The required ventilation volume should be calculated with reference to the standard ventilation volume of each chicken and the number of reared chickens, and then according to the desired ventilation rate. The installed fan performance calculates the number of fans that should be equipped.
Natural ventilation uses windows, which are carried out under the action of natural wind and temperature difference. The total area of ​​windows (in North China) is generally about 1/3 of the building area. For uniform ventilation in the house, windows should be symmetrical and evenly distributed. In order to adjust the ventilation volume, the windows can also be made into upper and lower rows, and some windows can be opened and closed according to the ventilation volume requirements, which can not only use the natural wind force, but also use the ventilation effect of the temperature difference. In winter, in order to prevent the cold wind from blowing directly to the chickens, a wind deflector can also be installed to reduce the wind speed and enter the chicken house evenly. The ideal window structure is divided into three layers. The inner layer is barbed wire, which is conducive to preventing wild birds and animal damage. The middle is the glass window frame, and the outer layer is plastic film, which is mainly used for winter insulation.
Mechanical ventilation is the main method to adjust the environmental conditions in closed chicken houses and broiler chickens with high density and large groups. Ventilation is closely related to temperature control, humidity control, dust removal and air conditioning. The mechanical ventilation methods of contemporary broiler closed chicken houses mainly include two types, namely horizontal ventilation and vertical ventilation. These two ventilation methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the appropriate method can be selected according to the actual situation in the chicken house design.
1. Horizontal ventilation. When the length of the chicken house is shorter than 10 meters and the span is not more than 10 meters, lateral ventilation is often used. There are two main types of lateral ventilation: positive pressure system and negative pressure system. The so-called positive pressure ventilation system is a gas exchange method in which the fresh air from the outside is sucked into the house by the fan, and the air in the house is discharged out of the house through the exhaust port due to the increase of air pressure. However, due to the disadvantages of high equipment cost, high cost, difficult installation, and narrow scope of application, it is rarely used in production practice.
The most common application is the negative pressure ventilation system. The modal negative pressure ventilation system is designed and installed in many ways, and the most widely used is mainly the penetration ventilation. Through ventilation means that the fan is installed on the side wall, and the air inlet is set at the corresponding part of the wall opposite the fan. After the fresh air flows in from the air inlet, it passes through the transverse diameter of the chicken house and is discharged outside the house. This ventilation design requires that the exhaust air volume is slightly larger than the intake air volume, so that the air pressure inside the house is slightly lower than the air pressure outside the house, which is conducive to the automatic flow of fresh air outside the house into the house under the influence of this negative pressure. The general air velocity is 0.5 m/s in summer and 0.1-0.2 m/s in winter, which can be measured by a ball anemometer. After measuring the air velocity and the ventilation area, the ventilation volume can be calculated. Ventilation volume (cubic meters/hour) = 3600 × ventilation area (square meters) × air velocity (m/s).
2. Vertical ventilation. When the length of the chicken house is more than 80 meters and the span is more than 10 meters, longitudinal ventilation should be used, which not only optimizes the rationality of the ventilation design of the chicken house, reduces the installation cost, but also obtains a better ventilation effect. Longitudinal ventilation means that the fan is installed on one side of the gable of the broiler house, and air inlets are set up on the opposite gable of the fan or on the walls on both sides of the opposite gable, so that fresh air can penetrate into the longitudinal direction of the house under the action of negative pressure. out of the house. The length of the exhaust fan is 1.25-1.40 meters. The fan surface of the exhaust fan should be at an angle of 100 degrees to the wall, which can increase the ventilation efficiency by 10%. The air velocity is 2.0-2.2 m/s. . In the high temperature season in summer, in order to effectively cool the chicken house, it is usually necessary to install a wet curtain at the air inlet, that is, a wet curtain to cool down. See Cross Ventilation Systems for ventilation calculations. Due to the advantages of simple design and installation, low cost, good ventilation and cooling effects, etc., the longitudinal ventilation system of the chicken house has been widely used in contemporary chicken production.

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