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Chicken feed formula design

2020-11-10

The chicken feed formula design is based on the different nutritional needs of different types of chickens to rationally select the feeding standards, and understand the nutritional characteristics of various feed materials, in order to meet the nutritional needs of different types of chickens, give full play to their production performance, and obtain large quantities and quality Good, low-cost product. This article focuses on the principles and points of feed formula design for broiler, layer and breeder chickens.

1 Broiler chicken
      ①Select and determine the breeding standards. Based on the special standards for broiler chickens in the domestic chicken breeding standards, refer to NRC and other standards, and make appropriate adjustments according to chicken breeds, feed resources, breeding management conditions, local conditions and processing methods of batch materials.
      ②Adopt stage feeding management technology. The breeding standards of broiler chickens in various countries in the world list their different nutritional levels by stage (week age) to ensure that the nutritional level provided is closer to the actual needs of broiler chickens, and to promote the growth of broiler chickens more effectively and economically. Use protein feed.
      ③ Use an appropriate amount of dietary energy concentration. Broilers have a certain ability to regulate the feed intake of diets with different energy concentrations, with low intake of high energy concentration diets and high intake of low energy concentration diets. It is ideal that the metabolic energy concentration of broiler diet is above 12.86MJ/kg. Limited to conditions, it can be reduced to the specified value of my country's breeding standards. When carrying out stage feeding, the energy concentration of each stage can be equal or gradually increased, but the decreasing trend should be avoided as much as possible. Adding oil can effectively increase the energy concentration, and the addition level is: 1% for broiler chicken, 1.5% for broiler chicken, and 2% for broiler chicken [1]. Generally, laying hens need to cooperate with daily diet of 100-120g; broiler chickens 130-150g [2].
      ④Preparation with high protein level is used. Under the premise of dietary amino acid balance, it is more appropriate to increase the crude protein of the diet to 22% in the early stage and reduce to 18% in the later stage.
      ⑤ Pay attention to the balance between various amino acids in the diet. When the energy concentration of the formula is higher or lower than the standard, the dietary amino acid level should be increased or decreased according to the ratio of amino acid to energy. For insufficient amounts of amino acids, the nutritional value can be improved through the complementary effects of multiple protein feeds, or they can be supplemented directly by synthetic amino acids.
      ⑥Sufficient mineral elements and excessive vitamins. Calcium and phosphorus must be adequately supplied in the form of compounds that facilitate absorption (such as monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, etc.). Vitamins and trace elements are regulatory substances. The figures listed by my country and the NRC are the minimum requirements. The content in the feed can be used as a safe dosage, and the regulations in the standard can be used as the added amount. However, due to the unstable activity of vitamins, it can be 50-100% or higher than the standard in practical application, especially vitamin A. At present, the use of post-spraying technology can maintain vitamin activity and reduce the vitamin additive dosage.
      ⑦ Reasonable use of pharmaceutical additives and enzyme preparations. The addition of antibiotics should be strictly controlled 1 to 2 weeks before the sale to avoid residues. The introduction of exogenous enzyme preparations and probiotics will help digestion and absorption.
 
2 laying hens
      Layers can be divided into three stages: brooding period, rearing period and laying period. As the age increases, the energy concentration and protein level decrease.
      ① 0-6 weeks old is the brooding period. During this period, the nutritional needs of chickens are high-energy, high-protein, and complete nutrition. When designing the formula, feeds with low crude fiber content, high nutritional value, good quality and easy to digest should be selected. Add necessary anti-coccidial drugs and anti-pullaria drugs according to the breeding method and the source of the chicks.
      ②The growing period is from 6 weeks of age to the start of labor. As a laying hen, it should not be overweight before laying. In order to control the growth rate, the nutritional index value of the diet should be relatively low. During this period, the metabolizable energy level per 1 kg of diet was 11.72 MJ for 7 to 14 weeks of age, and 11.30 MJ for 15 to 20 weeks of age. The crude protein level should not be too high. The protein levels at 7-14 weeks and 15-20 weeks are 16% and 12%, respectively. Under the condition of amino acid balance, the protein level can be reduced to 10%. The level of calcium in the diet of growing chickens should not be too high. The calcium level can be increased to 2% when the egg production rate reaches 5% 2 weeks before the start of production; the calcium content can be increased to the corresponding level if the egg production exceeds 5% . The feed for growing chickens can be made of agricultural and sideline products, such as bran, distiller's grains, powder residue, green feed and other raw materials with high crude fiber content and low energy value to control weight.
      ③Laying period. This period can be divided into three stages according to the egg production rate: the egg production rate is less than 65%, the egg production rate is 65-80%, and the egg production rate is greater than 80%. A two-stage system can also be used in production, that is, the egg production rate is greater than 80% and less than 80%. During the peak period of egg production, attention should be paid to the stability of the feed mix and the crude protein content. According to feeding standards, the crude protein level should be 16.5%, and if necessary, it can be increased to more than 17%. The level of calcium in the diet should reach 3.3 to 3.5%, and the available phosphorus should reach 0.33 to 0.35%. In addition, the raw materials of compound feed require good quality and rich nutrition, and the indexes of essential amino acids, vitamins, and trace elements can be appropriately improved. After the peak egg production period, the level of dietary protein should not drop too fast, and the feed intake should be restricted to 90-95% of the ad libitum intake. The calcium level should be adjusted appropriately. After 40 weeks of age and when the temperature in midsummer exceeds 35°C, the calcium level can be increased from 3.3 to 3.69% to 3.7 to 3.99%, but not more than 4%. To design the feed formula for laying hens, on the one hand, it must be based on the production level of the chicken, on the other hand, it must also take into account the breed of the chicken (such as light breed, brown egg breed, etc.), egg size, eggshell thickness and environmental climate. And other factors. Light white-shell layer feed and medium-size brown-shell layer feed can be used in common, but special attention should be paid to the supply level of protein, pyridoxine, vitamin B1 and vitamin E in brown-shell layer, and at the same time provide sufficient methionine and cysteine. Acid. Avoid the use of rapeseed cypress in the brown-shell layer feed as much as possible, so as not to affect the egg quality.
 
3 breeders
      The nutritional requirements of breeders in my country's feeding standards (for eggs) are the same as those of laying hens, while the requirements of vitamin B6, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and trace elements iron, zinc, and manganese in the Japanese and NRC feeding standards Both are slightly taller than laying hens. Compared with commercial layer feed, the content of zinc, iron, copper, vitamin B1, biotin, folic acid and pyridoxine in meat breeder feed is increased by 30-50%. Iron, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin K, Vitamin E and riboflavin should be increased by 1 time, pantothenic acid should be increased by 3.5 times, and other nutritional indicators are the same as commercial layer feed.


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