Hatching eggs by hens or through a natural incubator for artificial incubation.
Chicken genus of birds, birds and mammals during embryonic development, entirely dependent on ambient conditions after the fertilized egg (egg) discharge the mother to continue development. 1-4 days for internal organ development stage; 5-14 days as an external organ formation stage; 15-19 days for embryo growth phase; 20-21 days to hatching stage. Throughout the incubation process, temperature, humidity, ventilation and turn the eggs and other external conditions is to ensure normal embryonic development, and incubation to obtain a critical success factor.
Temperature is a prerequisite incubation process, the developing embryo most sensitive to temperature, and only in appropriate temperature, in order to ensure normal growth and metabolism in chick embryo. Therefore, the correct grasp of the incubation temperature is the key to improve hatchability. The optimum temperature at 1-18 days of incubation was 37.5 ° C-38.6 ° C; 19-21 days should be slightly lower this temperature is 36.1 ° C-37.5 ° C. If the temperature is too rapid embryonic development, the incubation period is shortened, increased embryo death. Temperature is too low egg incubation time will be extended, while embryonic growth retardation and bring death.
Water is a good conductor of temperature, air humidity on chicken embryonic development plays a significant role. General requirements for 1-18 days relative humidity 40% -60%; 19-21 days relative humidity 65% -75%. If the humidity is too high will prevent water evaporation inside the eggs, so that a large number of metabolites produced by embryonic development of water can not be discharged, in severe cases can lead to embryonic 撃 constriction 罃. If the humidity is too low, the eggs will accelerate the evaporation of water, causing excessive water loss, prevent discharge of metabolic waste and the required oxygen intake. Easy to cause embryo and shell membrane adhesions.
The main purpose of ventilation is to help the embryo embryo gas exchange with the outside world and heat exchange, while regulating the temperature inside the machine.
During embryonic development requires constant inhalation of oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide gas and water. Initial incubation, the embryo requires a small amount of oxygen can be obtained from the yolk through the action of enzymes, and then use the air chamber, and then after you use allantoic circulation and eggshell pores on the gas exchange with the outside world, 19 days after the embryo begins to breathe with lungs . With increasing age of the embryo, the embryo of gas exchange capacity is increasing. Therefore, apart from the early embryonic development, the gas exchange embryos are resolved by ventilation.
Ventilation also has a close relationship with temperature and humidity. When ventilated, the air can circulate continuously with the outside world can be heat exchange. Temperature, relative humidity can be guaranteed.
Turn the eggs:
The main effect is to change over eggs embryo orientation, promoting amniotic campaign to prevent adhesions between the embryo, egg yolk, protein and eggshell. Embryo placement must be properly carried out regularly over eggs in 1-18 days, once every two hours over eggs, egg turning angle of 90 degrees is appropriate.
Eggs hatch to 18 days, the eggs hatching tray called off over the plate. Then embryonic development is complete, at 20-21 days begin hatching. When hatched chick embryo has fully grown. At this chick's head is located in the gas chamber (ie the bulk section eggs), robust chicks pecked open a small hole in the shell first, then slowly expand to both sides of the hole until the broken shell to more than half the time, chick's head can be shelling out, then the body is gradually disentangle itself.